What is Tenofovir?
Tenofovir is a new-generation antiviral drug that is well-established on the world market of pharmacological products. The international abbreviation is TDF. The chemical composition of the drug is derived from artificially. This substance is included in the list of essential medicines in the fight against viruses in the World Health Organization (WHO).
The active component in the drug is a tenofovir-a nucleotide inhibitor with reverse, i.e. the opposite process of transcription of DNA synthesis on the matrix. This is a complex pharmacological compound, which after absorption is converted to tenofovir and actively begins to fight infection against the virus. In practice, there is a large percentage of people (taking Tenofovir) with restored immunity syndrome.The analog is Kaletra.
Tenofovir : Application
The antiviral agent Tenofovir has a specific feature, it actively fights the pathogens of hepatitis B and HIV 1 and HIV 2 viruses (human immunodeficiency). This is an important element in the treatment of these infections. Until now, it was impossible to completely defeat these diseases, but it is now possible to influence the rate of their development because this drug slows down the growth of the development of pathology. Scientific researchers are constantly looking for solutions to the problem.
History of creation
Czech chemist Antonin Goli derived the formula of the healing enzyme.
In 1984, a patent was obtained for the production of this product. A. Goli is a scientific researcher who has specialized all his life in the development of antiretroviral elements at the molecular level.
Scientists and inventors from all over the world (Europe, the United States, Japan, India, etc.) continue to research the above-described enzyme, deduce new formulas for fighting infections and their pathogens. This is a modern drug for fighting dangerous viruses that cause fatal infections. A few years ago, there was nothing to fight these viruses. Now, in combination with other drugs aimed at fighting pathogens, Tenofovir provides a positive trend to treatment for immunodeficiency and hepatitis B.
Composition & Form
Synthetic components of the drug are produced in tablet form and the form of white powders. Tablets are covered with a protective shell, 150 mg, and 300 mg each. On sale, some containers contain different amounts of tablets for 30, 60, and 100 pieces. For oral administration, a powder similar to salt is produced, including diisopropyl fumarate.
Attention! Strong-acting medication! It should be used after consultation with your doctor and their permission to take the medicine.
The drug is prescribed after a thorough examination, taking into account the individual characteristics of the patient and the anamnesis of the patient's body. This is done to exclude some side effects in a patient who has a weakened immune system.
Tenofovir Tablet - Drug Information (video)
The components are quickly absorbed into the blood and act in the human body for a long time.
Rules of proportion for the application
If the medicine is drunk in the morning on an empty stomach, up to 25% of the substance is absorbed and gets to the destination. And if you drink it during the day, eating a meal with fat content, the bioavailability of the drug increases, it turns out to 40%. Food intake, practice shows, does not affect the medication. After ingestion of one tablet (300 mg), absorption in the body occurs in 1-4 hours. The half-life is 60 hours.
Tablets are taken 1 time a day for HIV patients of the 1st degree, for the prevention of treatment, some prescribe 1 tablet (300 mg) for 2-3 days. It is better to use the drug at the same time, eating helps to increase the availability of molecules to infected cells.
In the United States and Japan, this pharmacological composition was tested in 2016.
In the protocols for the treatment of hepatitis B and HIV infection of the first and second types in the United States, this bio preparation is recommended for the treatment of all those who begin to undergo therapy.
Scientists have developed analogs of this medicine, the United States is now used alpha name of tenofovir (TAF). In this composition, there are fewer negative effects on the body, it has a more favorable profile. The form of release of tablets in the United States has a smaller dosage, this proportion is specifically focused on children's complexion. Tenofovir-Disoproxil-Fumarate is allowed to take children with a bodyweight of 17 kg.
The new drug tenofovir alafenamide is now approved in the United States-it shows high effectiveness in fighting viral infections in both adults and children.
The enzyme is prescribed for complex therapies, in the developed treatment regimen against HIV infection and hepatitis B.
This compound is prescribed for a long time, the result does not appear immediately, only after many years of taking a therapeutic course.
Patients with hepatitis B are recommended to be monitored and wait for the connection of the viral code with the patient's cells. In practice, immunologists have identified cases of adaptation of this drug in the body with the resistance of HIV strains.
Overdose of this drug was not observed. If the presence of an overdose is noticed, characteristic symptoms appear, then active companions can always be removed from the body by ordinary manipulations or by hemodialysis. During 4 hours of hemodialysis, about 10% of this chemical element is washed out of the body.
Important! Diagnose intoxication in time, the running form is not displayed!
In the case of observation of an ineffectual positive effect on the body, doctors begin to select analogs of the chemical component. It can be the following medications - Tenofovir TL, Viread, Tinople, Canon, VM, and others.
Tenofovir: Side effect
Based on the practice of using this drug, the researchers found several side factors from taking the drug:
- violation of the gastrointestinal tract (diarrhea, bloating);
- stomach and abdominal pain (nausea, vomiting);
- depression, bad mood;
- dizziness, headache;
- production of increased amylase by the stomach tract, saliva – the level of the enzyme in the blood, in the urine;
- lowering the level of potassium in the blood-hypokalemia;
- complications of lactic acidosis – lactic acid insufficiency;
- development of hypophosphatemia-decrease in the activity of alkaline metabolism;
- allergic reaction with rash, angioedema;
- Development of fatty liver dystrophy;
- Increased activity in the production of liver enzymes;
- muscle weakness;
- bone fragility, reduced bone density;
- the development of osteomalacia, and rhabdomyolysis.
If people suffer from liver failure and problems with the bile ducts and they have a virus, it can have a detrimental effect on them. They can not use the above-described composition, it can only worsen their diseases. If it is not possible to use other medical compounds, then use Tenofovir, but under the close and strict control of a doctor who, having detected the first signs of a violation, an imbalance in the liver and bile ducts, will urgently change the dosage. Patients with initially normal kidney and liver function do not experience discomfort when taking the prescribed dose.
Women who are overweight after using the drug may experience insomnia, heart rhythm disorders, dizziness, and deterioration of the Central nervous system.
The most frequent pathology in the body of patients occurs with the deterioration of the urinary tract and kidney function. A poor condition can lead to Fanconi syndrome or necrosis of the renal tubules.
Patients complain about the development of nephritis.
It is necessary to exclude the drug from the treatment regimen if the doctor's complex prescription already contains components containing tenofovir. This is an integral part of therapy, not its Foundation.
The drug can be used by pregnant women, scientists have proven. But the doctor's control, in this case, is mandatory for the patient. The positive effect of antiviral medication on pregnant women has been repeatedly proven. Before using the active element, the risk of possible danger to the fetus and mother should be calculated. The chemical set of tablets affects the bone mass, on the removal of potassium from the body. During treatment, it is better to take contraceptives, so as not to get pregnant. Breast-feeding during reception should not be carried out.
Sick people with small body weight (less than 35 kg) should be prescribed medication with caution, and only with further monitoring of them in a medical facility.
In patients over the age of 65 years with the use of tablets, there are obvious violations of the kidneys and liver. If this component is present in the treatment regimen, then you should carefully treat the elderly person, his General condition, this will help a comparative review of frequent urine tests.
Reviews from patients
Patients note a difficult and difficult adaptation period to the action of a medicinal substance. This is accompanied by fatigue, headache, and distraction. At this time, it is better to give up driving a vehicle.
Within three to six months of taking the pills, the body gets used to it.
Many patients, about 90%, suffer from reduced appetite, weight, muscle relaxation, and bone fragility. Patients may change their blood counts and become poor, develop kidney failure, and lose energy.
Use a complex medication, taking into account its specificity, only under the supervision of a doctor. Generic Tenofovir is prescribed in emergency cases, requires a complete diagnosis of the patient's condition before prescribing.
A modern version of the treatment of hepatitis In developed based on Tenofovir. European and American researchers have found that when using the drug alone or in combination with emtricitabine, there is a decrease in the risk of HIV infection.