What is Metformin?
The active ingredient of the drug Metformin, which helps with type 2 diabetes – is Metformin hydrochloride. The compound belongs to the category of third-generation biguanides.
Additional components are:
- magnesium stearate;
- talc and povidone;
- crospovidone and corn starch.
Pharmacological action in diabetes
The drug is characterized by a sugar-lowering effect due to its ability to suppress gluconeogenesis – this is important for diabetes. The drug Metformin in type 2 diabetes does not stimulate the activity of the pancreas. For this reason, the medication does not negatively affect the structure of the gland and its work in diabetes. The effectiveness of the drug is due to the following characteristics:
- reduction of basal glucose level due to the regulation of glycogenolysis (glycogen exchange);
- inhibiting the formation of sugar from substances of fat or protein metabolism;
- increasing the rate of sugar conversion in the digestive system;
- slowing down the absorption of glucose by the intestines;
- improving the fibrinolytic qualities of blood;
- increased insulin receptor susceptibility, which has a positive effect on reducing insulin resistance;
- contributing to the flow of sugar to the muscles.
Rules for the use of Metformin and indications
The scheme of diabetes therapy with generic Metformin type 2 diabetes is selected taking into account the severity of the inflammatory reaction and the individual characteristics of the patient's body. The endocrinologist prescribes medication for instant or prolonged action. The dosage of tablets is also selected strictly individually.
Indications for taking the drug are the following situations:
- second type of diabetes;
- metabolic syndrome;
- scleromalacia ovarian;
- prediabetic condition.
In addition to the fact that Metformin helps with diabetes, this tool is also often used in professional sports. With the help of this substance, athletes ' weight is adjusted. The components of the drug help to reduce appetite, which helps to avoid overeating and the development of obesity.
The medication is used for long or short courses. The scheme of diabetes therapy with this drug involves a long course of administration. These actions will create a protective shell that prevents the negative impact of pathological factors.
Metformin (500mg) belongs to the safe means for diabetes, which stands out in the category of hypoglycemic medications. However, the drug has contraindications to its use:
- liver or kidney failure;
- ketoacidosis of diabetics, comatose state;
- shock, processes of infection of the body;
- lactate acidosis;
- operations, injuries, or extensive burns;
- individual intolerance of components.
For the treatment of diabetes, the standard dosage of the drug begins with 500 or 1000 mg/day. In parallel, the patient has prescribed nutrition correction simultaneously with physical activity. If the result is negative, the dose is increased after a two-week course.
The maximum is 2000 mg/day, but for older people with diabetes – 1000 mg/day. The drug should be used with food or immediately after it, with plenty of water. When a diabetic patient ignores the doctor's recommendations on the dosage of medication, its effectiveness is significantly reduced.
Exceeding the therapeutic dose is fraught with failures in the activity of organs and systems. The patient has the following signs against this background:
- discomfort in the peritoneum;
- muscle pain;
- sleep disorder;
- impaired motor skills;
- reduction in muscle tone.
A serious complication of diabetes is lactic acidosis. This is the name of a metabolic syndrome that can develop with the accumulation of Metformin. This pathology occurs in the following situations:
- not controlled by SD;
- hypoxic state;
- grueling activity;
- refusal of the diet.
Special instructions when taking Metformin
During the treatment course for diabetes, it is necessary to monitor the activity of the kidneys. It is important to study the concentration of lactate in the blood substance several times a year. Once every six months, monitor the amount of creatinine. A combination with sulfonylurea is acceptable, but only under careful control of glycemia.
Pregnancy and lactation
Metformin 1000 mg is not recommended for pregnant women. If necessary, during this period, insulin therapy is used. Since studies confirming the ability of the drug to penetrate the baby through mother's milk have not been studied, nursing women are also not prescribed this drug. If the situation is critical, stop lactation.
Metformin use in children and the elderly from diabetes
The age limit for using the medication is less than 10 years. This prohibition is due to the not fully studied effect of the drug on the child's body. The drug is used for the treatment of patients older than this age in the form of monotherapy or combination with insulin.
The peculiarity of using the drug about patients of retirement age is the need to constantly monitor the functioning of the kidneys and conduct a study of the volume of creatinine in the blood twice a year.
Medical analogs of this drug with similar actions are:
- Siofor (Langerin);
Also, this drug can be replaced with Glyformin for diabetes. Metformin, as well as other analogs, allows you to improve the reaction of cells, faster assimilation of insulin. To avoid complications, it is recommended to carefully follow the treatment regimen developed by the attending physician, with the established dosages, a period of use.
Metformin and diabetes prevention
The drug is recommended in the absence of diabetes, as a preventive measure. Who is it assigned to:
- people with diabetes in the family;
- people with obesity;
- if there are unstable indicators in the study of glucose.
The recommended preventive dose is up to 1000 mg daily. Overweight people need to be increased by dosage-3000 mg.
Metformin 850 mg effectively prevents diabetes. Those who take the drug must simultaneously follow a diet with low carbohydrate intake and moderate physical activity. You should constantly measure the glucose indicator.