What is Hydrochlorothiazide?
Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) is a diuretic that is used in various diseases of the kidneys, lungs, liver and heart to reduce swelling, which arose as a result of fluid retention and salts in the body.
Diuretic effect of Hydrochlorothiazide is in its ability to excrete together with urine potassium ions, bicarbonate and magnesium.
The use of this drug reduces the reabsorption (reverse of absorption) of fluid of sodium and chloride ions in the distal tubule. According to the instructions to Hydrochlorothiazide, the drug acts on the distal tubules, reducing the excretion of calcium and preventing the formation of calcium kidney stones.
The use of medication increases concentration ability of the kidneys, inhibits the susceptibility of the vessel wall to the action of the neurotransmitters that are involved in the transmission of nerve impulses. Pills Hydrochlorothiazide also used in the treatment of individuals who receive treatment of hormonal drugs (estrogen, corticosteroids).
Hydrochlorothiazide is characterized by hypotensive effect, and reduces excessive formation of urine in persons with diabetes insipidus. In addition, Hydrochlorothiazide in some cases is able to reduce intraocular pressure.
After oral administration Hydrochlorothiazide well absorbed in the intestine and excreted by the kidneys almost unchanged.
The maximum efficacy of Hydrochlorothiazide is observed after 4 hours after ingestion and takes place over the next 12 hours. It is important to note that the drug is able to penetrate through the placenta and into breast milk.
Indications for use
According to the instructions Hydrochlorothiazide used in such diseases:
- hypertension (high blood pressure);
- diabetes insipidus (violation of water-salt balance in the body, which occurs due to reduction of secretion of antidiuretic hormone);
- congestive heart failure;
- nephritis and nephrosis;
- cirrhosis of the liver;
- prevention of stone formation;
- pregnancy complications: kidney damage, edema, eclampsia (very high blood pressure);
- edematous syndrome of various origin;
- subcompencirovanna forms of glaucoma.
Guide to Hydrochlorothiazide: application features
Hydrochlorothiazide release in the form of tablets (25 mg), which is intended for oral administration. This medicine should be taken after meals, drinking plenty of water, not crushing and not liquid. It is important to realize medication in the morning.
To lower blood pressure professionals usually prescribe a daily dosage that corresponds to 25-50 mg of Hydrochlorothiazide. Hypotensive effect can be observed in 3-4 days, but sometimes to get the desired effect, it may take about a month.
The edematous syndrome should take 1 to 4 tablets Hydrochlorothiazide 1 per day or 1 every 2 days, depending on individual patient response and condition.
Patients suffering from nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, doctors usually prescribed to take Hydrochlorothiazide in several stages until, until reduced such disease symptoms as excessive thirst and polyuria.
Elderly persons according to the instructions to Hydrochlorothiazide prescribed half tablets Hydrochlorothiazide 1-2 times a day. Children over the age of 3 years, the daily dose of drugs is determined by multiplying the 1-2 mg per weight patient. Received dosage give the child 1 time a day.
Pills Hydrochlorothiazide according to the instructions it is recommended to take 3 to 5 days, then need to take a break at the same time, then you can continue the course of treatment. Maintenance dose, taken twice a week.
Side effects and contraindications tablets Hydrochlorothiazide
According to the manual and reviews about Hydrochlorthiazide patients and physicians, this drug may cause some adverse reactions that manifest in the form:
- vomiting, nausea, anorexia, dry mouth, dyspepsia (digestive disorders);
- violations of liver function, jaundice, cholecystitis (inflammation of gallbladder), pancreatitis (inflammation of pancreas);
- seizures, confusion, lethargy, reduced concentration, irritability, fatigue;
- weak pulse, cardiac arrhythmias, thrombocytopenia, agranulocytosis;
- urticaria, pruritus, photosensitivity (sensitivity to light);
- reduced libido, impaired potency, pain spastic character, hypokalemia (low content of potassium ions in the blood).